The intention is covering employer’s organizations under the Trade Unions Act,1926 was to place both worker’s and employer’s organization on par in matters of rights and responsibilities.
The principle of giving equal representation to capital and labour on all consultative bodies like the Indian Labor conference, Standing Labor Committee and Industrial committees recognizes the basic tenet in employer-employee relationship.
There are three distinct phases of the origin and growth of employer’s organization in India:
- The Period prior to 1930: The information of certain associations such as the Bombay Mill owner’s association, The Bengal Mill Owner’s Association and the Ahmadabad Mill owner’s Association.
- Period between 1931 and 1946: Growth of chambers of commerce and Industrial associations like AIOIE, EFI and AIMO.
- Post Independent period: Further saw the growth of employer’s organization to meet the requirements of Industrial employers for advice on labor and related matters.
Employers Federation at the National Level
- All India Organization of employer’s (AIOE) (Estd-1932)
- Employers Federation of India (EFI) (Estd-1933)
- Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE) (Estd-1933)
- Council of Indian Employers (CIE) (Estd-1956)
- All India Manufacturer’s Organization (AIMO) (Estd-1941)
- Federation of Indian Chamber of commerce and Industry(FICCI) (Estd-1927)
Employer’s Federation at the regional and state level
- United Planter’s Association of South India.
- Federation of Gujarat Mills and Industries.
- North India commerce and industries Association.
- Employer’s Federation of Southern India
- Federation of Andhra Pradesh small scale Industries Association
- West coast Employer’s Association.
Structure of Employer’s Organization
- Have a 3-tier Structure
|Local Associations||Industrial Associations||Individual Employers|
||General pattern of organization of employers in India.
Formed at the area or regional level as also at the all India Level.
-Affiliated to the apex central industrial organizations.
|-Industrial Employers are also admitted to the apex organizations.
-Industry wise so that they can confront common problems.
All India Federations
At the national level there are federations namely AIOE, EFE and AIMO which have been representations on different tripartite labor consultative bodies.
AIMO -Omnibus multi-purpose body which represents the voice of small and medium size employers but its membership is not necessarily restricted to them.
FUNCTIONS OF EMPLOYER’S ASSOCIATION
- To protect and promote the interest of its members.
- Employer’s organization finds it necessary to have legislative support for the realization of their objectives.
- Communication: Association members have been informed about legislations, changes in legislations, court decisions about labor matters, obligations at national level, and proceedings of important tri-parties’ deliberations.
- Advisory Functions: Advise their affiliation complex legal provisions, procedures etc. When such advice is sought, some of the employer’s organization has built up an expert advisory service on labor matters for their members.
- Educational Efforts: Organize seminars, conferences at different levels to discuss important issues in labor management relations. Important studies on collective agreements, role of the private sector in national development etc. have been carried out by employers’ federation of India.
- Representational Functions: Are represented on various committees, wage boards etc. set up by the government from time to time and place before these bodies the point view of employers. They have also set up special committees of their own to study particular problems.
- Undertaking of Social Responsibilities: They also discharge certain social responsibilities towards the country and society by participating in national plans for economic development eliciting responsive co-operation from the unions.
All India Organizations of Employers
- Established in December 1932, on the initiative of FICCI with the original name All India Organization of Industrial Employers (AIOIE) later on Industrial word was dropped.
- Apex body of Employers’ in India.
Reason: To circumvent the objection of the ILO to the nomination of the employers’ delegates to the international labor conference from the FICCI which has considered a federation of chambers of commerce and not an organization of Industrial employers.
Objectives: Registered under the Trade Union Act, 1926.
- To take all necessary steps for promoting supporting or opposing legislative and other measures affecting or likely to affect industries in general or particular industries.
- To nominate delegates and advisors to represent employers of India at the International Labor conference ,UN and other conferences and committees affecting the interests of Trade ,commerce and Industries.
- To promote and Support all well considered schemes for the general uplift of labor and to take all possible steps to establish harmonious relations between capital and labor.
Most of the people are both in private and public areas.
Membership of AIOE
Two class of Members.
|Association Members||Individual Members|
|Any association/Chambers representing any industry/industries, Trade/Trades or commerce in the country are eligible for admission as an association member of AIOE.
|Any Individual firm or join stock company engaged in any industry, trade or commerce is eligible for admission as an individual member.|
Management of AIOE
The administration of the affairs of AIOE is taken care by office bearers and members are as follows:↓
A representative each of the association members as a member on the committee
10 members of the committee are elected by the delegates representing Individual members are amongst themselves.
10 Persons co-opted as members of the committee to give representation to such states and/or such important lines of industry, trade and commerce as might have been unrepresented on the committee and whose services may be considered useful.
- International Labour Conference
- ILO Governing Body
- Indian Labour Conference
- Standing Labour Committee
- Central Board of Trustees, EPFO
- Employees State Insurance Corporation
- Central Board for Workers Education
- Child Labour Advisory Board
- Minimum Wages Advisory Board
- Central Advisory Contract Labour Board
- All the Tripartite & Bipartite forum constitutes by ILO and Government of India and State Governments
AIOE is represented in the Indian labor conference and the standard labor committee and also on various tripartite advisory boards/committees set up by Ministry of Labor of the Government of India.
It has also representation on various regional institutes sponsored by the central govt. and several prestigious autonomous industries. The AIOE has been always given representations in tripartite committees and commissions set up by the government of India from time to time.
Functioning of AIOE:
- AIOE is served by secretariat of FICCI, who brings to the attention of the committee (of Management) all important development in the area of industrial relations and labor legislation and Implements the decisions taken.
- Industrial relations conference is organized as an annual feature in collaboration with the Employers’ Federation of India and the Standing conference of public Enterprises (SCOPE)
- A special programme for the executives of the employers’ associations is organized every year in collaboration with the EFI and the SCOPE under the ILO programme for assistance to employer’s organizations with a view to strengthening the secretariats of employers associations and improve their capability to render various services.
- Discussion Group: arranges between the representatives of workers and the authorities responsible for the enforcement of various labor laws and understanding /solving the problems faced in the compliance of these laws across the table.
- Advanced management programme for top and middle management and periodically organized on the subject of human resource development, safety and Health.
- Regional conferences are arranges to reach the members in their area of activity and get first hand language of the problems of the region.
- Contact with Govt. and Public: Specific issues are placed before Govt. through written and oral representations. Legislative matters are taken up with the select committees of parliament.
- Rapport with Trade Unions: The representatives of Trade unions are invited to Industrial Relations conferences and Regional conferences for bipartite dialogue on issues of vital importance and their relationships are maintained.
- Publications: A fortnightly bulletin entitled “AIOE Labor News” covers home news ,foreign news, legislation abroad important court discussions.
“Handbook if Labor Statistics” –Published for guidance of members
- Industrial Relations Award: An Annual award for outstanding contribution in the field of Industrial relations for both individuals and companies.
- Promotion of Management Education: The AIOE has instituted a gold medal to be awarded to the student who services highest marks in the subject of Industrial relations in the Diploma examination conducted by the national Institute of Personnel Management.
- Promotion of family welfare programme : Under ILO/UNFPA project a family welfare programme was implemented in selected centers fir motivating Industrial managements to persuade and educate workers to observes small family rooms.
- Promotion of Improve your business programme: Under the ILO/SIDA, CIE project-improve your business programme is being implemented all over the country.(Workshops for imparting basics of modern simplified management techniques).Some of these workshops were fir women entrepreneurs. As material –IYB Handbook and work book has been developed which provides first hand knowledge and also gives them skills to solve their problems.
- Nominates delegates to represent employers at Indian Labor conference (ILC) and various committees.
- Nominates delegates to represent Indian employers at ILO, UNO, International chamber of commerce and other bodies.
EMPLOYER’S FEDERATION OF INDIA (EFI).
- Established in 1933.
- Joint initiative of Bombay and Bengal chambers of commerce.
- Registered under companies Act, was concerned primarily with promoting and safeguarding the interests of British employers but later on a large number of Indian employers also came under its fold.
- It was registered as a Trade Union in 1963 under the Trade Union Act,1926.
OBJECTIVES (All are under matter of Industrial relations)
- To promote and protect the legitimate interests of employers engaged in industry, trade and commerce.
- To maintain harmonious relations b/w management and labor and support all well considered schemes that would increase productivity and at the same time give labor a fair share of increased return.
- To collect and disseminate information affecting employers and to advise members on their employer-employee relations and other ancillary matters.
Membership of EFI
|Association Members||Ordinary Members||Honorary Members|
|-Associations of employers not having less than 1000 employees.||-Constitutes firms undertaking business in India employing not less than 500 members||-Individuals invited to join the federation having some special skills or experience such as leading lawyers etc.|
Management of EFI
EFI activities are carried on by
- Four regional committees: Each having tenure of one year. Their functions are providing a forum for discussing national issues for raising and discussing local matters.
- Control body: Composed of an executing committee and secretariat.
The executive committee: Meets 4 to 5 times a Year.
- 4 or more vice presidents
- Directors general of the federations
- 2 representatives from each of the four regions and not more than 6 co-opted from among the honorary members
- The president and the director general are the ex-offices members of the committee.
- The vice-presidents and other members are appointed by the annual general meeting after nominations by regional committee.
Functioning of EFI
- Main function is to inform its member of new proposals for legislation or other developments affecting them
- In collaboration with AIOE, It occasionally holds join seminars on current industrial relations problems.
- The Federation publishes a fortnightly “Industrial bulletin” and an annual report.
- EFI has brought out monographs on several Industrial relations issues like automation, collective bargaining and job security.
- The federation is presented in various committees set up by the government like wage boards joint consultative bodies and thus involves itself with the formation of the industrial relations policies of the government.
ALL INDIA MANUFACTURERS’ ORGANIZATION:
- AIMO was founded by Dr. M. Visvesaraya in 1941.
- Motto of AIMO is “prosperity through Industry”
- Head Quarters in Mumbai; network office all over country.
AIM: To promote economic development through sustained dialogue between trade and industry and government agencies.
Major Objective of the AIMO
- Bring about rapid industrialization of the country through sound and progressing policies.
- Help in increasing aggregate output in India.
- Raise the standard of living of the people of India by utilizing to the fullest possible extent all the available national resources and talents in the country.
Functioning of AIMO
- Liasoning agency between manufacturers and government.
- Giving professional services to members on the areas of import-export, environment pollution etc.
- Periodically organizes seminars on important subjects and provides an opportunity of interface between manufacturers and govt. officials.
- It organizes “Industrial clinics” to provide counseling by experts in different areas to the manufactures.
- Being recognized by the govt. as an apex organization of Industry , AIMO represents in Advisory councils and committees set up by the central and statement govt. and consulted on all major economic matters.AIMO has representation at international labor conference at Geneva. It is actively engaged in promoting trade and joint ventures with foreign countries.It is a valuable source of information for the Indian and foreign manufacturers.
- AIMO prepare representations to govt. to secure quick redressal of governance of industry and trade.
- The AIMO conducts lectures, workshops, symposia and seminars as per members’ interests.
The AIMO brings out a newsletter and other publications for dissemination of information on important economic events and other countries.
STANDING CONFERENCE OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISE (SCOPE)
- Established in 1970.
- Registered under the societies Registration Act.
- It is an apex organization representing the central government public enterprises, State govt., public sector banks and flow other organization in the public sector.
- It is a member of the International Organization of employers.
- The main objective of SCOPE is to promote excellence in organization where public investment is involved in order to enable them to be globally competitive.
- The organization represents the public sector employers on various national and international bodies concerned with matters relating to labor and industrial relations
COUNCIL OF INDIAN EMPLOYERS’ (CIE)
- Founded in 1956.
- It is a joint initiative if AIOE and EFI
- CIE represents the employers on various national and International bodies concerned with labor matters.
- Its main constituents are AIOE,EFI and SCOPE.
- CIE is affiliated to the International organization of Employers
- CIE is not a registered body but has been recognized by the Govt. of India and many international and national bodies as an apex employers’ organization in regard to labor and social policy matters.
- Important activities concerning broader industrial relations which were earlier taken by AIOE,EFI and SCOPE separately ,were assigned to the CIE with a view of ensuring uniformity in the stand of employers over these matters.
- Notable objectives and functions of the CIE are follows
- To interact with the Govt. of India in formulation of long term labor ,economic and social welfare policies concerning labor and employers.
- To contribute to creating a congenial industrial relations and working for industrial place.
- To foster mutual co operation among workers organizations and employers.
- To deliberate on general problems confronting Indian Employers.
- To furnish and exchange information relating to industrial relations with employees of other countries.
- To represent employers on various national and international bodies.
List of Organisations representing Employers at the National Level
- National Council for Vocational Training
- Employers’ State Insurance Corporation
- Employers Provident Fund Committee
- Indian Labour Conference
- Labour Advisory Council
- National Productivity Council
- National Safety Council
- Standing Labour Committee
- VV Giri National Labour Institute