• Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication
            • Effective communication: Verbal and Non-verbal, Inter-Cultural and group communications, Classroom communication
            • Barriers to effective communication
            • Mass-Media and Society


Communication comes from Latin word –“communis” meaning to share.Activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, message or information as by speech, visuals, signals, writing or behavior.Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence.

  • Communication in the teaching process helps students attach concepts to their own lines, as students will apply what they learn in class to the world around them.

The teaching philosophy includes basic commercial approaches:

  • Passion and Communication.
  • Fairness to understand students as individuals and students.
  • Critical thinking: As lecture should be challenged to try to deliver course materials in different ways from different perspective.
  • Humor and fun: Pleasing students by being approachable will make them more determined to excel in their assignments and lectures will be inspired by students.



  • The form of message can be non-verbal signal body language, speech , writing or any other available medium to transmit the encoded message.
  • The message gets transmitted to the receiver. The receiver decodes the message and perceives it.



On the basis of the Number of Participants:

Either a man communicates with himself or with others in the numbers of 2 or more.

  1. Intra-personal communication: Communication with oneself to develop ideas or to analyze situations.
  2. Interpersonal (Dyadic) communication: When a person communicate his thoughts to another person.
  3. Intergroup (Association) Communication: Communication involves two groups.
  4. Intragroup (Multiadic) Communication: A complex form of communication which occurs between more than two individuals.
  5. Organizational (Institutional) Communication: Used in business enterprises.
  6. Public Communication: In which public is involved.
  7. Mass Communication: When a person or from communicated with a very large group of people or society without meeting them in a conference hall or meeting room.

On the basis of Direction of Flow:

1. Downward Communication:

Flow from superior to staff (Subordinate)


Under communication or over loss of information, communication, delay, distortion resentment of subordinate staff.

To make it effective

In charge should have all the information.

In charge should have all the awareness about how much to communicate.

Information should be passed on to the correct person.

2. Upward Communication:

Moves from subordinates and continues up to the top of organizational hierarchy.

Control purposes


Provides feedback to superiors with suggestions.

Promotes harmony


Employees are reluctant to express themselves

Bypassed superiors feel insulted.

3.Crosswise(Diagonal) Communication

Involves different people on the same organizational or different levels of the  organizational hierarchy.

On the basis of Way of Communication

  • Written Communication
  • Oral Communication
  • Visual Communication
  • Audio Visual Communication
  • Non Verbal Communication ( Facial, gestures,attire)
  • No Communication : Refer to the total elimination of the response of the receiver to the message of sender. Reasons can be psychological, unfavorable conditions or flaws in the business deal.


  • Based on the principal of edutainment.
  • Class room communication should be discourse
  • Written or spoken discussion on any topic or subject.
  • It should be activity based or student centered.

The following guidelines help a teacher to maintain an effective communication in the class.

  • Clarify the purpose of the message-sender of the message must clarify in their mind what they want to communicate.
  • Use appropriate tone and language
  • Use intelligible encoding
  • Consider receiver emotions and motivations (non verbal communication)
  • A good listener
  • Get frequent feedback
  • Subject Command
  • Co ordinate with another teachers and parents.
  • Use the new technology and regular up gradation.
  • Class room communication should be democratic.
  • A respectful communication is advised
  • The message should be repeated in multiple ways.


Personal Barriers

Because of different geographical, economic, social educational or occupational backgrounds

e.g.  Biases, competencies, Psychological problems

Semantic Barriers

Difference in meaning of words behaviors for different people.

Example: The word “astonish” can be used to describe “surprise “as well as startle. The words, when used by someone, can have any of the meaning. The context in which it is used will only let the receiver know what the sender means

Organization Structure Barriers

  • Beauracratic
  • Lack of chain commands
  • If structure is not properly defined

Technical Barriers:

  • Arising due to physical obstructions
  • Wrong time
  • Technological Malfunction

Cultural Barriers

  • Wrong Medium
  • Physical Environment


 Mass Media:

The mass media employ technological means to communicate to the masses. Selectively represents the press, cinema, radio, television, internet etc.


A term from cybernetics, the study of message; refers to an inquiry, response or experiment.

Didactic communication:

Communication that is suitable for or intended to be instructive usually between teachers and sounds. It is mostly one way.

Grapevine communication:

Is a form of informal business communication which develops within as organization. It means gossip that spreads and covers a lot of ground (a lot of people) much like vines do. (Water cooler talks)