SYLLABUS

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• Sources, acquisition and classification of Data.
• Quantitative and Qualitative Data.
• Graphical representation (Bar-chart, Histograms, Pie-chart, Table-chart and Line-chart) and mapping of Data.
• Data Interpretation.
• Data and Governance.

#### How to prepare for Data Interpretation Questions

DI is one of the easiest ways to score marks in any of the competitive exams especially NET exam especially because the answers are mostly based on assumptions, observations, and inferences.

Of course, there are mathematical calculations required at certain stages. The mathematical concepts required for Data Interpretation are Unitary method, Average and Percentage.

Data Interpretation or D.I. as it is popularly called, can be learnt, and understood perfectly by practice of the various types of questions. So, the plan to learn this segment would be, first, complete or revise the mathematical concepts required for the calculations. Second, pick up the basic questions from any practice book, websites etc. , remember choose the questions where you have readymade answers, because D.I. can be tricky, you will always feel your calculations and answers are correct but mostly they are not. Third, for whichever exam you are preparing, pick the past year questions with solutions and start practicing them as many times you can. You can see the improvement on your own.

At last, pick up questions without solutions but you should have answers to refer to, and try to solve them, if you are getting the answers correct now, then you have achieved your target. This is the most important step because you get to know your ability to understand and solve the unfamiliar questions as it is never said that the questions will be repeated in the competitive exam subsequently.

Here, we have tried to include some of the questions for your practice (of course with solutions).

The various concepts which are pre-requisite to DI are as follows:

• Cross-multiply means to multiply the numerator of one fraction by the denominator of the other fraction.
• Percent implies “for every hundred” and its sign is “%”.It is read as the percentage and therefore x% is read as x percent. Therefore, a fraction with denominator 100 is called a percent. For example, 30 % means 3010030100 (i.e. 30 parts from 100). This can also be written as 0.30.

Formula for Percentage:

To calculate p % of q, use the following formula:

(p/q)*100

Also remember here:    p % of q = q % of p

• Average/ Mean (m)=(Sum of the terms)/(Number of terms)

PRACTISE QUESTIONS

1. Look at the following diagram: Suppose you are given the following:

1. Number of students in the class= 1,000
2. Number of students in the class from State X= 200
3. Number of students in the class from State Y= 300

With the above information, answer the following two questions: (December,2018)

Suppose that 40% of the students in the class are female students. The number of female students from State X is 50 while the number of female students from State Y is 180.What is the number of female students from other states in the class?

• 150
• 100
• 130
• 170
 According to the questions, total female students in class= 40% of 1000=400;Number of female students in State “X” =50;No. of female students in  State “Y” =180;The no. of female students from other state in the class 400-50-180 = 170 ;Ans: d

What is the percentage (%) of students from States other than X and Y in the class?

• 20%
• 10%
• 30%
• 50%
 No. of students from state x and y= 500; Total no. of students = 1000. Require% =(500/1000)*100 =50%; Ans. d

2.Based on table, answer the following questions:

The number of candidates Appeared (A), Passed (P) and Selected (S) in a competitive examination in two states. (December,2018)

 Year State X State Y A P S A P S 2010 990 195 48 1120 240 60 2011 650 150 44 960 180 52 2012 840 180 50 885 177 64 2013 780 160 64 1040 220 60 2014 1020 220 72 980 280 68 2015 930 215 70 900 228 48

1. In the year 2012, the % of candidates who failed in the State X was nearly:

• 80%
• 90%
• 50%
• 95%
 In the year 2012, total no. of students in State ‘Y’ = 840 Failed students =840-180= 660 Therefore, % of candidates who failed in state X= (Failed Student/Total Student)*100 = (610/840)* 100 = 72.61 ≈80% (approx.)

2. In State X, the overall pass % during the period 2010-2015 was nearly:

• 5%
• 40%
• 20%
• 50%
 Total number of students appeared in State X in 2015= 5210 Total pass students = 1120 Therefore, Required % =(1120/5210)*100 = 20% (Approx.)

3.In the year 2015, the % of candidates who passed in State X and Y taken together was nearly:

• 60%
• 50%
• 25%
• 10%
 In the year 2015, the % of the candidates who passed in state x and y = ((215+228)/(900+930))*100 = (443/1830)*100  =24.20% = 25% (Approx.)

3.Consider the following table that shows the amount of exports (in crore) from three different companies A, B and C over these years 2012-2018.Based on the date in the table. (December,2019)

Year-wise amount of Exports from companies

 Year Amount of exports (In crore Rs) A B C 2012 40 90 70 2013 70 50 100 2014 50 70 130 2015 80 70 100 2016 110 90 70 2017 60 110 90 2018 130 150 110
1. In how many of the given years, were the exports from company A more than its average annual exports over the given years?
• 2
• 3
• 4
• 5
 Average annual exports from company A = (40+70+50+80+110+60+130)/7=540/7=80 Export from company A in year 2016 and 2018 are RS.110 and Rs. 130 crores respectively which is greater them the average export by company A. Ans. (d)

2. In which year, the absolute difference between the exports from companies A and B was the minimum?

• 2013
• 2014
• 2015
• 2016
 Absolute difference between exports from companies A and B in Year 2013= 70-50 = Rs. 20 crores; Year 2014 = 70-50= Rs. 20 crores; Year 2015= 80-70 =Rs.10 crores -Minimum year 2016 = 100-90 = Rs. 20 crores. This is minimum in year 2015. Ans. (c)

3.What was the difference between the average exports of three companies in 2017 and the average exports of three companies in 2012?

• 33 crores
• 67 crores
• 25 crores
• 20 crores
 Average export of three companies in year 2017= (60+110+90)/3=86.67 crores Average export of three companies in year 2012 =(40+90+70)/3 = Rs. 66.67 Crores Difference between the average exports of three companies = 86.67 – 66.67 = RS. 20 Crores. Ans. (d)

4. For which of the following pairs of years, the total exports from the three companies put together are equal?

• 2014 and 2017
• 2015 and 2017
• 2016 and 2017
• 2014 and 2015
 Total exports from three companies A, B and C in Year 2014 = 50+70+130 = RS.250 crores; Year 2015 = 80+70 +100 = Rs. 270 Crores; Year 2016 = 110+90+70 = Rs.270 crores; Year 2017 = 60+110+90= Rs. 260 crores. Thus, total exports from three companies A, B and C are equal in year 2014 and 2015. Ans. (d)

5. Average Annual amount of exports during the given period for company B is approximately what percent (%) of the average annual amount of exports for company C?

• 64%
• 21%
• 94%
• 33%
 Average annual exports for company B =(90+50+70+70+90+110+150)/7=630/7=Rs.90 Cr Average annual exports for company C=(70+100+130+100+70+90+110)/7=670/7=Rs.95.714 Cr Required Percentage=    (90/95.714)*100=94% Ans. (C)

4.Based on the data in the table, answer the questions that follow: (December 2019)

The table shows the percentage (%) profit earned by the company A. Income of company B and expenditure of company B during the years,2013-18 as well as formula to complete percentage (%) profit.

Year Wise Financial Details (in Rs. Lakhs)

 Year % profit of A Income of B (in Rs. lakhs) Expenditure of B (in Rs. Lakhs) 2013 40% 48.6 36 2014 25% 35 25 2015 60% 62.4 48 2016 40% 77 44 2017 10% 80 50 2018 20% 72 45

Where Profit (%) =((Income-Expenditure)/Expenditure )* 100

1. If the expenditure of Company A in year 2017 was Rs. 45 Lakhs, then the net profit (in Rs. Lakhs) of Company A is what percent of net profit (in Rs lakhs) of Company B on the same year?

• 15%
• 25%
• 40%
• 75%
 Expenditure of company A in year 2017 = 45 Lakhs % profit of A in 2017=10%; Profit of company A in year 2017= 45 X 10/100 = 4.5 Lakhs Profit of company B in year 2017= 80-50=30 Lakhs Required percent =      Ans. (a)

2.In the income of the Company A in the year 2014happened to be 32.5 Lakhs, then what was the sum of the net profit (in Rs. Lakhs) of Company A and Company B in 2014?

• 12.8 lakhs
• 13.2 lakhs
• 15 lakhs
• 5 lakhs
 Income of company A in year 2014= 32.5 Lakhs Profit of company A in year 2014 =32.5 ×100/(100+25)=26 Lakhs Net profit of company A in year 2014 =32.5 – 26= 6.5 Lakhs Net profit of company B in year 2014= 35-25 = 10 Lakhs Sum of profits of company A and B together in year 2014 =6.5 + 10 = 16.5 Lakhs Ans. (d)

3.The percent profit of Company B was maximum in the year?

1. 2014
2. 2015
3. 2016
4. 2017
 %Profit of company B in:   Year 2013 =(48.6-36)/36×100=35% Year 2014 =(35-25)/25 ×100=40% ; Year 2015 =(62.4-48)/48×100=30% Year 2016 =(77-40)/40×100=92.5% (Maximum) ; Year 2017= (80-50)/50×100=60%; Year 2018 = (72-45)/45×100=60%; Ans. (c)

4. If the income of Company A in the year 2018 was Rs.90 Lakhs, then the net profit (in Rs. Lakhs), then the net profit (in Rs. Lakhs) of Company A and Company B in 2018 in what percent more than the net profit (in Rs. Lakhs) of Company A?

• 30%
• 60%
• 75%
• 80%
 Income of company A in year 2018 = 90 Lakhs; Expenditure of company A in year 2018=90 × 100/(100+20)=90 ×5/6=75 Lakhs Net profit of company A in 2018 = 90-75 =15 Lakhs Net profit of company B in 2018 = 72-45 = 27 Lakhs Difference in profit = 27-15 =12 Lakhs; Required percent =12/15×100=80%  ;  Ans. (d)

5.What is the difference between percent (%) profit of Company A and Company B in the year 2013?

1. 5%
2. 7%
3. 12%
4. 15%
 Percent profit of company B in 2013 = (48.6-36)/36×100=35% Percent profit of company A in 2013 = 40%  ; Difference in percent profit = 40% – 35%= 5% Ans. (a)