EVOLUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING AND RESEARCH IN POST INDEPENDENCE INDIA

 

RADHAKRISHNAN COMMISSION (UNIVERSITY EDUCATION COMMISSION) 1948

The first Education Commission of 1948,known as Radhakrishnan Commission was  the first significant step taken by the government of India in the field of education under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan,distinguished scholar and former vice-chancellor of Banaras Hindu University and who became the second President of India.The commission was appointed by the Government of India to go into the problems and prospects of Indian University education  and to suggest improvements and extensions that might be considered  for the better future requirements of the country.There were 10 members in the commission.The commission was appointed  due to the realization that a reconstruction of university education as essential for a national-cultural resurgence as well as for meeting the requirements of scientific,technical and other manpower which was needed by India for its socio-economic development.

The various recommendations given by RadhaKrishnan Commission are as follows:

Faculty in Universities:

The commission emphasized that the teacher plays a vital role in the education system. The qualification and number of faculties should be adequate to discharge many types of duties in a university or in a college. Proper care should be taken in the selection procedure of a teacher for the appointment as a professor, reader, lecturer and an instructor as well as for his or her salaries. Definite rules regarding the Provident leave and hours should be followed by a university.

Teaching standards:  The teaching standards should be improved, and in order to improve the teaching standards following recommendations were given:

(a) The standard admission procedure to the present should correspond to that of the current intermediate examination.

(b) Each province should have large number of well-equipped and well staffed intermediate colleges should be established and also many vocational institutes should be opened to divert students to different vocations after their 10 to 12 education period.

(c) Refresher courses should be organized by the universities for high schools and intermediate college teachers.

(d) The number in the Arts and Science faculties of a teaching university to be fixed at 3,000 and in affiliated college at 1500 to avoid overcrowding.

(e) The number of working days be increased to minimum of 180 days in the year, exclusive of examination days with three terms, each of 11 weeks’ duration.

(f) Lectures should be planned and supplemented by tutorials, library works and written exercises. There should b no prescribed text-books for any courses of study.

(g) The attendance at lectures were asked to be made compulsory and only certain private students be allowed to appear for public examination. An experiment was asked to be made with the evening college for the working people.

(h) That tutorial instruction be developed in all institutions imparting university education in the following manner:

(1) students should report to tutors in groups not exceeding 6 in numbers;
(2) tutorials should be made available to all undergraduates both pass and honours;
(3) tutorials should stimulate the mental development of the students and they should not become mere coaching for examination;
(4) if tutorials are to succeed, the teaching staff should be improved in quality and quantity.

The university libraries should be greatly improved by:

(a) Large annual grants

(b) The introduction of open access system

(c) Longer hours of work

(d) Better organization

(e) Well-trained staff which include reference assistants

(f) Laboratories be improved in building, fittings, equipment, workshops and technicians.

Professional Education:

The university Education Commission has made some recommendations regarding professional education and has divided it into the five aspects of education as:

(a) Agriculture education

(b) Commercial education

(c) Engineering and Technology

(d) Legal education

(e) Medical education

Religious Education:

The commission recommended religious education in the colleges that-

(a) All education institutions starts work with a few minutes for silent meditation.

(b) In the first year of the degree coursed the lives of great religious leaders like Gautama Buddha, Jesus,Sankara,Zaroster,Socrates,Ramanuja,Madhava.

(c) That in the second year some selections of a universalistic character from the scriptures of the world be studied.

(d) In the third year, the central problem of the philosophy of religion is considered.

Medium of Instruction:

The commission suggested that the higher education should be imparted through the regional language with the option to use the federal language as the medium of instruction either for some subjects or for all subjects. English should be studied in the Higher schools and in the universities for keeping the students in touch with living stream of ever-growing knowledge.

Women Education:

Regarding the women education,the Commission suggested for providing the same facilities to the women colleges and universities as provided to men’s colleges and universities.The curriculum should also be prepared for them,considering them as both women and citizens.

Administration and Finance of a University:

The University Education Commission considered the regulations and control capacity of a university in the following ways:

(a) The university education should be placed on the concurrent list.

(b) For all the allocation of grants to the universities a central Grants Commission should be established.

(c) The governing bodies of the colleges should be properly constituted.

(d) The aim of an affiliated college should be to develop into a unitary university and later into a federative one.

(e) The state should also take the responsibility for the financing of higher education

 

KOTHARI COMMISSION (1964-66)

The appointment of the education commission of 1964- 1966 popularly known as ‘KOTHARI COMMISSION’ was a significant event in the history of education in free India. In 1964, Dr.D.S Kothari was requested to give advice to the government on the action to be taken for the development of education at all the levels and he submitted a report in 1966.

Recommendations

The opening sentence report “The Destiny of India is being shaped in the classrooms.”

‘According to the commission’, the most important and urgent reform needed in education was to transform it and related it to the life, needs and aspirations of the people and thereby make it a powerful instrument of social, economic and cultural transformation necessary for the realization of the national goals’.

Aims of educations

The commissions clearly specified the five important aims of educations in India.

Education and productivity

Science education as an integral part of school course.

Work experience as an important aspect of general educations.

Vocational education especially at the secondary school stage to meet the needs of industry, agriculture and commerce.

Improvement of scientific and technical education and research at the university stage.

Social and national integration

According to the commission common school system, social service, NSS,NCC teaching languages, Literatures, philosophy and history of India would go a long way in promoting national integration.

Education and modernization

Another important aim of education is modernization. Education should awaken curiosity, Interests, Attitudes and sense of values and skills in the pupils.

Development of democracy

India is the largest democracy in the world. The success of democracy depends upon the education of the masses.

Social and spiritual values

Education system should emphasize the development of fundamental, Social, Moral and Spiritual values. 

Educational structure

The commission recommended preschool education (1-3 years) and 10 year period of general education. It may be subdivided into Lower primary and upper primary stages. The high school stage (3-2 years) and higher secondary stage of three or more years were also recommended by the commission.

Status of teachers

Teachers have to play an important role in improving the standard of education. Their quantity, qualification and character should be up to the mark. The socio-economic and professional status of teachers must be improved.

Equalization of educational opportunity

  • The commission stressed the need for equalization of educational opportunity.
  • Scholarships and books should be given to deserving students.
  • Adult education is also to be improved.

Curricular development

The commission felt that the existing curriculum is badly in need of reform.

Methods of teaching

The commission emphasized the importance of modern methods of teaching. The commission recommended dynamic methods of teaching and flexibility of curriculum in order to make school life lively and inspiring.

Language policy

  • The three language formula after due modification should be used as medium of instruction.
  • The mother tongue or regional language should be compulsory at the lower primary stage.
  • The official language Hindi or associated language English should be added at the higher primary stage.
  • The modern Indian or European language may also be studied the secondary stage.

Text books and study materials

  • A comprehensive program of text book production at national level should be implemented.

School building

Since the accommodation in most of the school is unsatisfactory the commission recommended the construction of new school buildings keeping in view the economy and local condition.

Guidance and counseling

  • Hence adequate arrangements should be made in all secondary schools to introduce guidance service with a trained counselor..

Evaluation

Evaluation is a continuous process closely related to the aims and objectives of education. The written examination should be improved and oral tests as part of internal assessment should be given due weightage.

Other important recommendations

The commission also stressed the importance of science, education, vocational and technical training, agricultural research, adult education, literacy campaign.

Government action

It was on the basis of the report that the NEW EDUCATION POLICY was declared in 1968.

MERITS

  • The Kothari commission report was a masterly piece of work on all aspects of Indian Education.
  • The commission presented a comprehensive study of educational problems in the context of the national needs and aspirations.
  • The commission made a realistic approach to link education to the socio-economic, cultural and spiritual aspects of Indian life.
  • The commission recommended reasonable and respectable scales of pay to all categories of teachers subject to periodical revision.

DEMERITS

  • The position of heads of schools was left undecided by the commission.
  • The commission committed a mistake in placing Sanskrit on a par with Arabic.
  • The view of commission on medium of instruction was not only conflicting but also controversial.

 

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