Professional education is an integral part of Overall Higher education system.

  1. Agriculture and allied discipline: 9 % of all universities is agriculture university.
  2. Legal Education
  3. Healthcare Education


  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Delhi India
  • Autonomous organization under the department of Agricultural Research and education, Ministry of Agriculture including horticulture, fisheries and animal science in the entire country.
  • 90 ICAR institute and 45 Agricultural Institutes.
  • Pioneering role in ushering green revolution.

Technical Education


  • All India Council for Technical Education.
  • Statutory body, national level council for technical education.
  • Department of Higher education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • Established in November 1945 as an advisory body.
  • In 1987 given statuary status by an act of Parliament.
  • Responsible for proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education and Management education system.
  • Accredits graduate and post graduate programs under specific categories at Indian Institutions as per its charter.



  • Main Governing Body
  • Enforces the standards and advises the government.
  • Helps to coordinate between the centre and the states.
  • Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the UGC.
  • 46 Central Universities –40 are under the preview of Ministry of Human Resource Development
  • 318 State Universities
  • 185 State private Universities
  • 129 Deemed to be Universities.
  • 51 Institutions of National Importance (Established under Acts of Parliament) under MHRD (IIT-6, NIT’s -31 and IISER and 4 Institutions (Established under various State Legislation).
  • Set up by Union Government in 1956
  • For the co-ordination, determination and maintenance of standards of University.
  • Provides recognition for universities in India
  • Provides funds for government-recognized universities and colleges.
  • Headquarters are in New Delhi and six regional centers Pune, Bhopal, Kolkata,
  • Hyderabad, Guwahati and Bangalore.
  • The UGC has the unique distinction of being only grant giving agency in the country which has been vested with two responsibilities.
  • Providing funds
  • Coordination
  • Determination and standards in institutions of higher education.
  • The UGC’s mandate includes
    • Promoting and co coordinating university education.
    • Determining and maintaining standards of teaching examination and research universities.
  • Framing regulations on minimum standards of education.
  • Monitoring developments in the field of college and university education, disbursing grants to universities and colleges.
  • Serving a link between the union and state govts. And institutions of higher learning.
  • Advising the central and state governments, on the measures necessary for improvement of university education.
  • Accreditation of higher learning over universities under the aegis of UGC is overseen by following 16 autonomous statutory Institution.
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) Indian Nursing Council(INC)
Distance Education Council(DCE) Dental Council of India(DCI)
Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR) Central Council of Homeopathy(CCH)
Bar Council of India(BCI) Central Council of Indian Medicine(CCIM)
National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) Council of Architecture
Rehabilitation Council of India(RCI) State Council of Higher Education
Medical Council of India(MCI) National Council of Rural Institution.
Pharmacy Council of India(PCI) Rehabilitation Council


Following six Universities are not funded by UGC as these are directly funded by Government of India.

  • Central Agricultural University Imphal Manipur
  • Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi
  • Indian Maritime University, Chennai
  • Nalanda University at Nalanda Bihar
  • Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University Fursatgang at Raibareli Uttar Pradesh
  • South Asian University



  • National Programme of technology Enhanced Learning
  • Project funded by MHRD provides e-learning through online Web and Video courses in engineering, Science, Technology ,Management and Humanities.
  • Joint initiative by seven IITs and ISC Bangalore.
  • Associate partner Institutions –Selected Premier Institutions.



  • The Center has notified and guidelines for establishment of 10 Institutes of eminence in the public sector and 10 in the private sector in September 2017.
  • Existing private institutions can apply for their selection under the scheme if they have an initial corpus funds of 60 Crore to increased at an annual uniform rate to Rs 150 Crore in 10 yrs.



The Indira Gandhi National Open University known as IGNOU is a distance learning national

university located in New Delhi, India

  • Established in 1985 with a budget of INR 2000 Crore, when the parliament of India passed the Indira Gandhi National Open University Act, 1985 (IGNOU Act 1985).
  • Largest University in the world
  • Established to provide higher education to the disadvantaged segments of society to encourage, coordinate and set standards for the distance and open education is India and strengthen the human resources of India through education teaching research extension, training form, the mainstay of its academic activities.
  • National Resource Centre.
  • IGNOU hosts the secretariats of the SAARC consortium on open and distance learning (SACODIL) and the global mega universities Network (GMUNET) initially supported by UNESCO.
  • IGNOU has now started decentralization process- 5 zones (North,South,East,West,North East)
  • First of regional head quarters, catering to four southern states –Pondicherry, Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is being set up in Thiruvanthapuram in Kerala.



  • Based in New Delhi
  • Responsible for the promotion and coordination of the Open University and distance education system and for determination of its standard in India.
  • Constituted under Indira Gandhi National Open University Act (1985).
  • Considered necessary and expedient to establish a distance education council as an authority of the university under section 16 of the Act.



  • National Assessment and Accreditation Council
  • Assess and accredits Institutions of higher education in India.
  • Headquartered in Bangalore
  • Autonomous body funded by University Grant Commission



  • National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
  • Setup under the National Council for Teacher Education Act 1993(#13,1993) in 1995
  • Headquarters in New Delhi
  • Four official “Regional Committees” of NCTE operate from Jaipur, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar and Bhopal handling the Northern, Southern, eastern and western regions respectively.
  • Forms an extremely critical Structure of the National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education 2009.



  • National Mission on Education through ICT
  • “Train 10000 teachers “ is a major initiative under the NMEICT—IIT Kharagpur + IIT Bombay are working as partner institutes to improve the teaching skills of engineering college teachers of the country in core engineering and science subjects.
  • 2 week ISTE workshops are held during the vacation period in summer and winter.
  • Live lecture by IIT faculty.
  • The participating teachers attend at a remote center to their own college and also attend tutorial and labs sessions conducted in the same center.
  • The lecture transmission and live interaction takes place through distance mode using the AVIEW technology and the internet



  • National Commission for Higher Education and Research
  • NDA government recalled bill in 2014.
  • Central Institute of Educational Technology
  • A constituent unit of NCERT
  • 1984, merger of center for educational technology and department of teaching Aids.
  • Premier National Institute of Educational Technology
  • Major Aim is to promote utilization of educational technologies –radio, TV, films, satellite communications and cyber media.



  • Information and Library Network center
  • Autonomous inter-University Centre (IUC)
  • Involved in creating Infrastructure for sharing of library and information resources and services among academic and Research Institutions.
  • Works collaboratively with Indian university libraries to shape the future of academic libraries in the evolving information environment.
  • Involved in Modernizing university libraries in the country through a nation –wide high speed data network.

Primary objective.

  • Promote and establish communication facilities to improve capability in information transfer and access
  • To establish INFLIBNET



  • Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan
  • Centrally Sponsored Scheme
  • Established in 2013
  • Aims at providing strategic funding to eligible state higher educational Institutions.
  • National University of Educational Planning and Administration.
  • Organization dating back to 1962



  • Indian think tank considering possible policies that might sharper India’s comparative advantage in the knowledge intensive service sectors.
  • Constituted on 13 June 2005,by prime minister of India ,Dr. Manmohan Singh
  • National Institutional Ranking framework.
  • Launched on 29thSeptember 2015
  • Outlines a methodology to rank institutions across the country
  • The Parameters broadly cover.
    • “Teaching, Learning and Resources”
    • “Research and Professional practices”
    • “Graduation outcomes”
    • “Outreach and Inclusivity”
    • “Perception”



  • National Board of Accreditation
  • Primary agency that was given responsibility of coordinating and executing the rank work in consultations with implementation core committee constituted by MHRD. 
  • INFLIBNET Centre was responsible for development of NIRF web portal including data capturing system, Perception capturing, feedback mechanism and ranking platform.



The University grants Commission has been making proactive efforts to upgrade the knowledge and skills of faculty members in the institutions of higher education. For the purpose of organizing orientation and refresher courses for in-service faculty members, the UGC has established and funds a network of 51 Academic Staff colleges across the country

Besides the UGC has also identified as many as 74 institutions to organize and conduct refresher courses for faculty members in their chosen areas of specialization.



  • National Council of Educational Research and Training
  • Established in September 1961 in New Delhi as an autonomous body


  • Qualitative Improvement in education.
  • Provide quality text books,
  • Improvement in the quality of teacher’s education.
  • Regional colleges of education are at Ajmer, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar and Mysore and 17 field offices established all over the country



Important Concept and Definition:

Gross enrolment ratio (Gross enrolment Index) is a statistical method/measure used in the education sector, to determine the number of students enrolled in school at several different grade levels.

  • The GER can be over 100% as it includes students who are repeating grades; enrolled late, older than their classmates or those who have advanced quickly and are younger than their classmates.
  • India’s higher education system is the second largest in the world after the USA.
  • Gross enrolment ratio (GER) in higher education in India is increased from 5% in
  • 2015-16 to 8% in 2017-18 which is calculated for 18-23 years of Age Group.

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