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- Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India
- Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India
- Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India
- Professional, Technical and Skill Based education
- Value education and environmental education
- Policies, Governance, and Administration
VALUE EDUCATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
- In general life things which are worthful at present time become deteriorated in worth after a period of time. Values are those entities which are worthful forever in same extent.
- In brief we need to know something of religion, philosophy and ideology of the people.
- These aspects of a culture are considered as values because the guiding social aims and religious beliefs of people are ideas they think worthwhile of which they attach value.
Source of Value Education
Regular Subjects of the school curriculum.
- There is a set of values hidden in structure and methodology of any subject.
- General Science associated with value as free inquiry, Commitment to truth.
- Mathematics associated with logical thinking, neatness and precisions
- Provide young pupils with opportunities for self-expression and self-Fulfillment
- NCC, NSS, Boy Scouts and Girls guides.
- Games and sports
- Excursions and Field visit
- Personal example and Hard work of teachers
- The ideals of teachers
Imparting Value Education
Two distinct ways of imparting value education
- Deliberate and systematic instruction in values provided in school time table.
- Values to be inculcated are explained, discussed and illustrated through stories and tables, anecdotes, moral dilemmas and real life events.
Indirect or Incidental
- Imparted through the regular subjects of the school curriculum and co-curricular activities
- Value education becomes incidental when it learnt through specific situations that occur in the school.(e.g. art of bravery by a student, an act of discipline and moral failure (theft, dishonesty)
Environmental education is the teaching related to ecosystem, principles of ecology and fundamentals of environment.
Objectives/Aims of Environmental Education:
- Knowledge: To have the basic understanding of the environment and its various challenges
- Awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environment challenges
- Attitude to collect the values and feelings in regard to environment and for participating in improvement and protection activities of the environment.
- Participation for the resolution of various environmental problems, encouraging the citizens to take involvement in the benefit of the environment.
Provisions for environmental education
- Environmental Education was made compulsory at all level of Indian Education system bu the Honorable Supreme court in 1991.
- Article 48-A: the responsibility of every citizen in the form of fundamental duty has been laid down.
- Constitution of India: The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.
- National Policy on Education in 1986: There is a paramount need to create a consciousness of the environment.
“Green Teacher”- A distance course in ‘Environmental Education’ launched by Center of Environment Education, Ahmedabad ,India for already practicing teachers. A diploma programme of one year for teachers was also launched.Environmental Education is based in all the three levels of the formal educational system – Primary schools, middle and secondary school level and the college level.
Environmental Educational is also supported by International bodies such as UNESCO, UNEP, MOEF, CEE etc.
Characteristics of environmental education
The commonly agreed characteristics are (by UNESCO, 1981);
- Environmental education should be integrated into the whole system of formal education at all levels;
- Environmental education should be interdisciplinary in nature;
- Environmental education should adopt a holistic perspective which will examine the ecological, social, cultural and other aspects of particular problems
- Environmental education should be centered on practical problems related to real life
- Environmental Education should aim of building up sense of values.
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