Software: is series of very simple compile instructions carefully organized to complete complex task. The instructions are in programming language (Basic, Pascal, c, c++)

Hardware: is what sits on your desk and executes the software instruction.

Hardware Components:

  1. Input Devices : Process to tell computer to what to do
  • A keyboard and mouse are standard devices to interact with computer.
  • Other devices are : Graphic tablets, camera, video capture hardware ,Trackballs ,Barcode reader, Digital Reader , Digital Camera,Gamepad,Joystick,Microphone Scanner, Webcam ,Touchpads,Pen Input, Electronic whiteboard.
  1. Output Devices: “Process to show what it is doing “
  • Using these basically computer sends information back to the user.

e.g. Monitor, printers, plotters, projectors, LCD projection, Panels, Computer Output, Microfilm (Com), Speaker(s).

  1. Storage: Saving data and programs.
  • Hard disk drives are an internal higher capacity drive which also stores the operating system which runs when one powers on the computer.
  • Floppy disk drives allow you to save work on small disks and take the data with you.
  1. Memory: “How to processor stores and used immediate data!”
  • When a program is used, the computer loads a portion of the program from the hard drive to the much faster memory (RAM).
  • When one saves one’s work or quit the program ,the data gets written back to the hard drive.

Memory Classification  

  1. Internal Register
  • In a CPU is used for holding variables and temporary results.
  • It has small storage but can be accessed instantly.
  • It is the faster way to access memory.
  1. Main Memory or RAM (Random access memory)
  • Is a type of computer memory and is a hardware component.
  • Can be increased, provided the operating system can handle it. It is access slowly as compared to cache.
  1. Cache:Is used by CPU for memory which is being accessed over and over again. It is smaller memory but larger the internal register. It is further classified into L1,L2 and L3
  • L1 Cache: It is accessed without any delay
  • L2 Cache: It takes more clock cycle to access than 4 caches.
  • L3 Cache: It takes more clock cycles to access than L2 cache.
  1. Hard Disk :Is a hardware component in a computer. Data is kept permanently in this memory. Memory is not directly accessed by the CPU, hence it is slower as compared with RAM, and Hard disk is cheaper per bit
  1. Magnetic Tape :
  • is usually used for backing up large data.
  • When the system needs to access a tape it is first mounted to access the data. It is unmounted after accessing the data
  • It is usually takes few minutes to access a tape and thus it is slower than other devices.


  1. Are basically the brains of the computer.
  2. Are sometimes called chip and are usually manufactured by Intel.
  3. Versions include the 386,486 and Pentium line.
  4. Macinines use power PC processor by Motorola.
  5. Megahertz (MHZ) is the internal processor speed in which computer instructions are performed.

Hardware Accessories

  1. Modem: Allow you to communicate with other computers using a phone line. Speed is in bits per second.
  2. CD-ROM Drivers: is a high capacity storage device. It lets you read data from the disk but does not let you to write the data back.
  3. Printers: The different types of printers are laser, ink jet, dot matrix each has a different quality of output. They are measured in dpi (dot per inch) and ppm (pages per minutes) the higher is better.
  4. Scanners: They “digitize “printer material (like photos, documents) and save it to a graphic file format (like GIF or JPG) for display on the computer.

 Operating System Software:

  1. Provides a “user interface” for users to manage files, start programs customize computer settings and the other tasks.
  2. Also provides the fundamental core computer functionality for programmers.

e.g. Windows, Windows XP, Wndows 10, Android, IOS etc.

Software Applications:

  1. Uses the operating system software and provides the real functionality of a computer
  2. Application Include

Word Processing (MS word), Spreadsheets, Database, Presentation, Internet Browsers, Games

Bytes and Bits

  1. Binary number system is used.
  • 1,0 (Bits)
  • 8 Bits =1 Byte
  • 4 Bits = 1 Mibble
  • 1024 bytes =1 Kilobyte
  • 1024 Kilobytes =1 Megabyte (MB)
  • 1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte (GB)
  • 1024 Gigabytes =1 Terabyte (TB)


  1. Is a legally binding agreement that specifies the term of use for an application and defines the rights of the software producer and of end-user.
  2. All software must be legally licensed before it may be installed.

Different types of software licensing are

Proprietary License

The software publisher glants a license to use one or more copies of software, but that ownership of those copies remains with the software publisher. The user must accept the license before they are permitted to use the software.

End User License Agreement

  1. Also called “clickwraps” or “shrinkwraps”
  2. Indicate the terms under which the end user may use the software.
  3. For organizations, agreement/contracts are between vendors/publishers and organization, with specification in terms of use for all users from the organization, superseding any EVLA and which may come with the software.

Concurrent use license.

  1. Are licenses that permit you to install the software onto multiple machines as long as the number of computer using the software at the same time does not exceed the number of licenses which you have purchased.
  2. Used in conjunction with “License Manager”

Site License

  1. Permits the usage of software on any computer at a specified site.

Perpetual Licenses

  1. Are licenses without expiration data which permit use of the software indefinitely. Without requiring a recurring fee for continued use. Most software that individuals buy for use on their home computers is perpetual licenses.

Non Perpetual License

  1. The licenses that lease the software for use for specified period of time, usually annually or sometimes bi annually.
  2. Users are required to remove the software from their computer if they cease paying the license fee.

License with Maintenance

  1. Allow the user to purchase “maintenance” or “software insurance ” along with the original license fee, which entities the users to receive new versions of the software for one or two years until the maintenance agreement expires.


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