Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was adopted by the United Nations (All 191 Nations) in the year September 2000 project the efforts of the international community to “spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty.” All nations agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger To halve the proportion of people whose daily income is less than $1.25

To achieve full and productive employment, as well as decent work for all, including young people and women

To halve the proportion of individuals suffering from hunger in the period between 1990 and 2015.

Achieve universal basic education To ensure that children universally – including both boys and girls – will be able to complete a full course of primary education by 2015.
Promote gender equality and empower women To eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005, and in all levels of education by 2015.
Reduce child mortality To reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds in the period between 1990 and 2015
Improve maternal health To reduce the maternal mortality ratio by 75 percent

To achieve universal access to reproductive health

Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases To halt by 2015 and have started to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

To achieve global access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for those who need it by 2010

To have ceased and started reversal of the incidence of malaria and other major diseases by 2015

Ensure environmental sustainability To integrate the principles of sustainable development into every nation’s policies and programmes, and also reverse the depletion of environmental resources

To reduce biodiversity loss and achieve a substantial reduction in the rate of loss by 2010

To halve the proportion of the universal population without sustainable access to clean and safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015.

To achieve substantial improvement in the lives of a minimum of 100 million slum dwellers by 2020.

Develop a global partnership for development. To further develop an open, predictable, rule-based, non-discriminatory trading and economic system

To address the special needs of the least developed countries

To address the special needs of small island developing States and landlocked developing countries

To deal exhaustively with the debt problems of developing nations

To provide access to affordable essential drugs in the developing world – in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies

To avail benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications, in collaboration with the private sector


The MDGs are inter-dependent.All the MDG influence health, and health influences all the MDGs.

Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015 United Nations Member States adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to spur actions that will end poverty and build a more sustainable world over the next 15 years. There are 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (for Both Developed and Developing country) in a global partnership. There are 169 specific targets to achieve by 2030. SDGs are not legally binding.17 goals are.

  1. No Poverty
  2. Zero hunger
  3. Good health and well-being
  4. Quality Education
  5. Gender Equality
  6. Clean water and sanitation
  7. Affordable and clean energy
  8. Decent work and Economic growth
  9. Industry Innovation and Infrastructure
  10. Reduced Inequalities
  11. Sustainable cities and communities
  12. Responsible consumption and production
  13. Climate Action
  14. Life below water
  15. Life on Land
  16. Peace Justice and strong Institutions
  17. Partnership for the goals.

Most widely accepted definition of Sustainable Development was given by the Brundtland Commission in its report Our Common Future (1987).

“Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

Need for sustainable development



As per the Sustainable Development Goals Report, 2019

  1. Extreme poverty has declined considerably.
  2. The under-5 mortality rate fell by 49 % between 2000 and 2017.
  3. Immunizations have saved millions of lives.
  4. The vast majority of the world’s population now has access to electricity.
  5. Countries are taking concrete actions to protect our planet: marine protected area shave doubled since 2010.
  6. Countries are making concerted efforts to address illegal fishing.
  7. 186 parties have ratified the Paris Agree mention climate change, and almost all have communicated their first nationally determined contributions.
  8. About 150 countries have developed national policies to respond to the challenges of rapid urbanization, and more than 70 countries and the European Union now have more than 300 policies and instruments supporting sustainable consumption and production.


As per the Sustainable Development Goals Report, 2019

  1. Increasing inequality among and within countries requires urgent attention.
  2. 3 out of every 4 stunted children live in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
  3. Young people are more likely to be unemployed than adults.
  4. Barriers in achieving gender equality.
  5. Global hunger has been on the rise after a prolonged decline.
  6. Extreme poverty declined from 36% in 1990 to 8.6% in 2018, but the pace of poverty reduction is starting to decelerate as the world struggles to respond to entrenched deprivation, violent conflicts and vulnerabilities to natural disasters.
  7. Extreme poverty is three times higher in rural areas than in urban areas.
  8. 2018 was the fourth warmest year on record. Levels of CO2 concentrations continued to increase in 2018.
  9. Natural environment is deteriorating at an alarming rate.
  10. Sea levels are rising.
  11. Ocean acidification is accelerating. Ocean acidity is 26% higher than in pre-industrial times.
  12. 1 million plant and animal species are at risk of 
  13. Land degradation continues unchecked.

Sustainable Development Index (SDI)

Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) release SDI.SDI measures the ecological efficiency of human development, recognizing that development must be achieved within planetary boundaries.

It was created to update the Human Development Index (HDI) for the ecological realities of the Anthropocene.The SDI seeks to help countries identify gaps that must be closed in order to achieve SDGs by 2030 and to identify priorities for early action.India ranked 115 out of 162 countries.

NITI Aayog has released the second edition of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) India Index (SDG Index 2.0).

Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR), 2019

  • It is the first GSDR prepared by the United Nations. It is entitled “The Future is Now: Science for Achieving Sustainable Development”.
  • It evaluated progress on the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.
  • The report finds that the current development model is not sustainable, and the progress made is in danger of being reversed through worsening social inequalities and potentially irreversible declines in the natural environment that sustains us.

The amount of modern renewable energy in the total global energy supply has increased by an average of approx. 5% annually over the past decade. Meanwhile, since 2009 the price of renewable electricity (solar and wind) has dropped for five years in a row.

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