Is used by research student in universities to share their research work.

Thesis format consists of three main parts.

1. The Preliminaries

  1. Cover page.
  2. Title Page
  3. Declaration of Student
  4. Certificate of Research guide
  5. Approval of thesis
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Table of Contents
  8. List of figures, tables and illustrations.
  9. List of abbreviations(Optional)
  10. Synopsis

2. The Text

  1. Introduction
  2. Literature review.
  3. Materials and methods./Methodology
  4. Results
  5. Discussion
  6. Summary and Conclusion.
  7. Reference /Bibliography

3. The Annexure

DISSERATION (Latin word –meaning –discourse)

  • Is a lengthy formal document that argues in defense of a particular thesis.
  • Is a document that presents the author’s research and findings.
  • Is submitted in a support of candidature for a degree or professional qualification.
  • Must highlight researcher’s original contribution.

Two types

  1. Empirical  :  Make propositions resulting from experiments involving laboratory or field research.
  1. Analytical :Reflect propositions result from meticulous pioneering and innovative analysis of previously published work.



  1. Introduction
  2. Literature Review
  3. Methodology
  4. Data Presentation.
  5. Conclusion

Thesis Statement:

  • Is simply a single sentence that provides the main intention of the research.
  • The thesis statement will epitomize the scope of your study give you an idea of what you want to provide or and prove and will pilot your research.
  • A good thesis statement must satisfy the following four criteria.
  1. The thesis statement must state one’s positions.
  2. The thesis statement must be able to support a discussion.
  3. The thesis statement must be specific about its positions.
  4. The Thesis statement should only have one single idea of discussion.

Reference Citations

  • May be included in the following forms
    1. Footnote Referencing
    2. Endnote Referencing or citation –sequence system collated and listed chronologically at the end of the text.
    3. Bibliography
  • The Citation must provide the following bibliographic information.
  1. Author(s) surname(s) first name (s) or initials.
  2. Name of the article book or journal
  3. Editors (If applicable)
  4. Publishers Name and Locations.
  5. Volume and Issue Number or Month of publication (in case of a journal)
  6. Year published
  7. ISBN(if applicable)
  8. The exact page nos,if your reference is a direct quotation, a paraphrase an idea or is otherwise directly drawn from the source.[p-page ,pp-pages]

Citations Styles  

  1. American psychological association (APA)

Is an author/date based style

Emphasis is on author and the date of piece of work to uniquely identify it.

  1. Modern Language Association

Often applied in arts and humanities

Particularly used in USA.

  1. Harward

Similar to APA

Used in UK and Australia

Encouraged to use in humanities.

  1. Vancouver

Used in medical and scientific papers.

  1. Chicago and Turabian

Separate styles but similar

Used mainly for history and economics

ward Referencing guide

Modern Language Associations (MLA) American psychological Associations (APA)

Chicago Style

Primarily used by university students, to cite information sources

Two type of citations.

1.In text Citations

2. Reference Lists


Last Name,First Initial (year published),Title city ,publisher ,page(s)

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.

Multiple sources by the same author then citations are listed in order by the date of 

Is widely used in referencing system

MLA system involves two tasks.

How the list of reference sources at the end of the text is compiled.(Reference List)

How the other authors in the body of your text are referred.(in text Citation).


REF: Author last name, First Name, of publication.

Format :

Author’s last name ,first and second initial (Ed)(Year)

Title Italic publication location : publishing company


e.g. Townsend ,R.M(1993)

The medieval village economy.princeton ,NJ Princeton University press.


Last Name,First Name,



Derived from Latin work “ibedium” which means the same and it is used for the consecutive references rather than repeating the same reference.

Opus Citatum: (Op Cit) –It also means the same when references are same but on different pages.

APA format for magazines and journals

  1. Author last name first followed by his initials
  2. Year of publication.
  3. Title of the article (not in italics)

“Periodicals title ” volume ,place of publishing, name of publisher(Pagitation) page number.

e.g. Wilson ,J.N (2009) International Money flows, The economics Time,55 New Delhi ,Tata Mc Graw Hill(550-570)

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