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- Research: Meaning, Types, and Characteristics, Positivism and Post- positivistic approach to research
- Methods of Research: Experimental, Descriptive, Historical, Qualitative and Quantitative methods.
- Steps of Research.
- Thesis and Article writing: Format and styles of referencing
- Application of ICT in research.
- Research ethics
- Ethics are moral principals or values generally governing the conduct of as individual or group.
- Along with researcher; client’s fields agents suppliers must also act in as ethical manner.
- Ethical questions range from practical to social and philosophical questions.
Researcher themselves mislead the research they carry out intentionally or unintentionally.
Major/Well-Known ethical/moral principles:-
- The principal of Non-malfeasance:
No harm should be caused to general people or respondents.
- The principle of Beneficence:
Every Research should contribute to welfare of people.
- The Principle of Autonomy:
Researcher must look into the respect and to protect the rights and dignity of participants.
- The Principle of Justice:
Any type of profit/gain should be shared responsibly.
Undergo /give possible considerations to existing literature/data and its relevance towards research undertaken.
- Maximization of public interest and of social justice:
Research is a social activity carried out for the benefits of the society.
Should be undertaken with the motive of public interest and social justice.
- Respect protection of autonomy, rights and dignity of participants, privacy autonomy and confidentiality should be maintained no revaluation should be done without a written consent/permission of the participants is essential.
- Accountability and Transparency
All references must be cited
Data should be reviewed by an appropriate and responsible social body.
Proper arrangements should be made for the preservation of research records for a reasonable period of time.
- Pliagrism should not be done
- Avoid Researcher biasness.
- Before entering the research business, researcher must check code of ethics for the particular field by set of professional associations.