Teaching is a process in which two personalities interact with each other, where one is more matured personality (teacher) and the other is comparatively less matured (student).

Learning is an outcome of teaching:

  • Modification in the behavior is learning.
  • Is relatively permanent in behavior.
  • Is a continuous process.

Teaching skills:

  • A behavior the teacher uses to facilitates pupil’s learning directly or indirectly.
  • Includes all arts and behavior of the teacher which maximizes pupil’s learning
  • Art of the teacher which makes communication between the teacher and pupils sufficiently.

Core Teaching Skills 

Skills of

  1. Probing questions
  2. Explaining
  3. Illustrating with examples
  4. Stimulus variation
  5. Reinforcement
  6. Classroom Management
  7. Blackboard Management
  8. Introducing a lesson

Nature of Teaching 

Teaching is an art as well as science.


Approach of Teaching  

  • Traditional Approach
    • Teacher centric method, the teacher decides and leads the teaching process

                     e.g. : Gurukul, Workshops

  • Modern Approach
    • Student/Child centric method
    • The teacher adapts according to students

 Levels of Teaching  

  • Purpose of teaching- to bring desirable change in learner
  • Teaching and learning is interrelated
  • Final goal of teaching and learning- development of personality (Holistically)
  • Main aim is to bring change in the behavior of the student.
  • Teachers have to understand and analyze the developmental stage of the learners so that the desired educational objectives can be achieved.

Three levels of teaching:

  1. Memory level: Thoughtless teaching
  2. Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching
  3. Reflective level: Upper thoughtful teaching

 Memory Level 

  • Lowest level of teaching
  • Cramming of data
  • Teaching is nothing but learning the subject matter by rote.
  • Teacher is more prominent than students.
  • Pre-planned, organized and sequential study material.
  • Cognitive level teaching.


  • Useful in pre-primary and kindergarten classes.
  • Improves memorization capacity, required when remembering the fact is more important than understanding it.
  • Teachers have a choice of subject matter, plan it and present it.
  • Its prerequisite for understanding level of teaching.


  • Does not develop student’s capabilities.
  • Strict discipline is required with cramming insisted.
  • Intelligence is of no importance.
  • No motivation

Understanding Level 

  • Better than memory level
  • Seeing the total use of facts
  • Seeing relationship between principles and facts.
  • Application of principles
  • A generalized insight


  • Students have to use their thinking abilities.
  • The students acquire knowledge which can be used for reflective level of teaching.
  • Students learn the facts in organized and sequential form.


  • Teaching is subject-centered
  • Interaction between teacher and student is minimized.
  • Teacher is required to be master of the subject/ methodology is less emphasized.

Reflecting Level 

  • Also known as introspective level
  • Can be attained only after attending the previous two levels.
  • Highest level at which teaching is carried out.
  • Requires deep thinking about a subject.
  • Student’s original thinking , creativity and critical abilities is developed and emphasized.
  • Research work- identifying problem, defining it and finding a solution to it.
  • No force of knowledge of students but develops in their talents and capabilities.


  • This is Learner-centered and not teacher or subject centered.
  • Teaching is appropriate for higher classes
  • Usually an interaction between teacher and learner can be observed.
  • Teacher and teaching is more important in this level than the others.


  • Not suitable for lower grades or smaller children , only suitable for mentally matured children.
  • As the basis is interaction, the subject- matter is neither organized nor structured.


  • Teacher
    • Subject knowledge/mastery over the content
    • Communication skills- listening, speaking (moderate pitch),neither high nor low pitch
  • Student
    • Desire to learn
    • Readiness to learn
    • Communication skills

 Factors affecting teaching-learning process

  1. Socio-Economic Factors: Dealing with Economic and Social status of both or either student or teacher.
  2. Environment:
  • The Physical Environment: school, class infrastructure, place etc.
  • Psychological Environment : Teacher-student relationship,Parents,Family,Friends

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