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- Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.
- Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.
- Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.
- Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centered vs. Learner centered methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).
- Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.
- Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.
TEACHING: CONCEPT, OBJECTIVES, LEVELS OF TEACHING (MEMORY, UNDERSTANDING AND REFLECTIVE), CHARACTERISTICS AND BASIC REQUIREMENTS
Teaching is a process in which two personalities interact with each other, where one is more matured personality (teacher) and the other is comparatively less matured (student).
Learning is an outcome of teaching:
- Modification in the behavior is learning.
- Is relatively permanent in behavior.
- Is a continuous process.
- A behavior the teacher uses to facilitates pupil’s learning directly or indirectly.
- Includes all arts and behavior of the teacher which maximizes pupil’s learning
- Art of the teacher which makes communication between the teacher and pupils sufficiently.
Core Teaching Skills
- Probing questions
- Illustrating with examples
- Stimulus variation
- Classroom Management
- Blackboard Management
- Introducing a lesson
Nature of Teaching
Teaching is an art as well as science.
Approach of Teaching
- Traditional Approach
- Teacher centric method, the teacher decides and leads the teaching process
e.g. : Gurukul, Workshops
- Modern Approach
- Student/Child centric method
- The teacher adapts according to students
Levels of Teaching
- Purpose of teaching- to bring desirable change in learner
- Teaching and learning is interrelated
- Final goal of teaching and learning- development of personality (Holistically)
- Main aim is to bring change in the behavior of the student.
- Teachers have to understand and analyze the developmental stage of the learners so that the desired educational objectives can be achieved.
Three levels of teaching:
- Memory level: Thoughtless teaching
- Understanding level: Thoughtful teaching
- Reflective level: Upper thoughtful teaching
- Lowest level of teaching
- Cramming of data
- Teaching is nothing but learning the subject matter by rote.
- Teacher is more prominent than students.
- Pre-planned, organized and sequential study material.
- Cognitive level teaching.
- Useful in pre-primary and kindergarten classes.
- Improves memorization capacity, required when remembering the fact is more important than understanding it.
- Teachers have a choice of subject matter, plan it and present it.
- Its prerequisite for understanding level of teaching.
- Does not develop student’s capabilities.
- Strict discipline is required with cramming insisted.
- Intelligence is of no importance.
- No motivation
- Better than memory level
- Seeing the total use of facts
- Seeing relationship between principles and facts.
- Application of principles
- A generalized insight
- Students have to use their thinking abilities.
- The students acquire knowledge which can be used for reflective level of teaching.
- Students learn the facts in organized and sequential form.
- Teaching is subject-centered
- Interaction between teacher and student is minimized.
- Teacher is required to be master of the subject/ methodology is less emphasized.
- Also known as introspective level
- Can be attained only after attending the previous two levels.
- Highest level at which teaching is carried out.
- Requires deep thinking about a subject.
- Student’s original thinking , creativity and critical abilities is developed and emphasized.
- Research work- identifying problem, defining it and finding a solution to it.
- No force of knowledge of students but develops in their talents and capabilities.
- This is Learner-centered and not teacher or subject centered.
- Teaching is appropriate for higher classes
- Usually an interaction between teacher and learner can be observed.
- Teacher and teaching is more important in this level than the others.
- Not suitable for lower grades or smaller children , only suitable for mentally matured children.
- As the basis is interaction, the subject- matter is neither organized nor structured.
- Subject knowledge/mastery over the content
- Communication skills- listening, speaking (moderate pitch),neither high nor low pitch
- Desire to learn
- Readiness to learn
- Communication skills
Factors affecting teaching-learning process
- Socio-Economic Factors: Dealing with Economic and Social status of both or either student or teacher.
- The Physical Environment: school, class infrastructure, place etc.
- Psychological Environment : Teacher-student relationship,Parents,Family,Friends
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